Family planning and HIV integration

Expanding integration of family planning into HIV Best Practice

Expanding integration of family planning into HIV care and treatment: lessons and best practices

This Program Brief from August 2014 outlines lessons and best practices for expanding inetgration of family planning into HIV care and treatment. The Brief begins by reviewing the roles that UCSF and KEMRI have played in generating evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such integration, expanding services at the county level and nationwide, and supporting national and global leadership on integration. It then presents a set of lessons learned and best practices for scaling up FP/HIV integration.

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Year 2014 | Authors Ibis Reproductive Health; UCSF; E2PI; Bixby Centre for Global Health; KEMRI
Keywords Best practice, family planning, Integration of HIV and family planning

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Evidence-based practices Integrating family planning into HIV programs

Integrating Family Planning into HIV Programs: Evidence-Based Practices

A review of research findings, program experiences in the field, and technical guidance to identify and synthesize evidence pertaining to: the rationale for integrating FP and HIV services; facilitators of and barriers to successful integration; and the impact of integrated FP and HIV services. This brief offers a summary of this evidence and recommendations for institutionalizing and scaling up integrated FP and HIV services.

Additional information
Year 2013 | Authors FHI 360, USAID
Keywords Integration, Linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV

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Effect of hormonal contraceptive methods on HIV disease progression: a systematic review

A systematic review of the literature to study whether women living with HIV
who use hormonal contraception are at increased risk of HIV-disease progression
compared with those who do not use hormonal contraception.

Additional information
Year 2013 | Authors Curtis KM, Phillips SJ, Polis CB
Keywords family planning, Hormonal contraception, Injectables, progression,  HIV.

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Contraception for the HIV-PositiveWoman: A Review of Interactions between Hormonal Contraception and Antiretroviral Therapy

A literature search of PubMed and Ovid databases of articles published between January 1980 and February 2012 to identify English-language reports of drug-drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). A review of the FDA prescribing information of contraceptive hormone preparations and antiretrovirals for additional data and recommendations is also included.

Additional information
Year 2013 | Authors Burke A, Jamshidi R, Robinson JA
Keywords ART, drug interactions, Hormonal contraception,  HIV.

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AIDS Supplement: Family Planning and HIV

The 2013 supplement of AIDS brings to the forefront the latest advances in research, programs and policy regarding how the fields of family planning and HIV are interrelated — and how they can be better integrated in practice.

Additional information
Year 2013 | Authors Multiple
Keywords family planning, Integration, Linkages, PMTCT,  HIV.

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The Case for Integrating Family Planning and HIV/AIDS Services: Evidence, Policy Support, and Programmatic Experience

This set of eight briefs summarize the current state of integration of the family planning and HIV fields. The briefs highlight recent developments, including changes in the policy environment, new programmatic examples, and the latest operations research results.

Additional information
Year 2010 | Authors FHI
Keywords Antiretroviral therapy (ART), family planning, Integration, Linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV

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Increasing Support for Contraception as HIV Prevention: Stakeholder Mapping to Identify Influential Individuals and Their Perceptions.

PLoS ONE 5(5): e10781: An article which identifies how to foster greater support for implementing PMTCT programmes which also include the prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive women.

Additional information
Year 2010 | Authors Harlan SV, Lanham M, Petruney T, Robinson ET
Keywords advocacy, Antiretroviral therapy (ART), family planning, Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT)

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The Contribution of Family Planning towards the Prevention of Vertical HIV Transmission in Uganda.

A study that estimates the burden of paediatric HIV disease due to unwanted pregnancies.

Additional information
Year 2009 | Authors Esiru G, Harper M, Hladik W, Stover J, Tappero J
Keywords Antiretroviral therapy (ART), family planning, Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT), Women and girls

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Reproductive intentions and outcomes among women on antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda: a prospective cohort study.

LoS One. 2009;4(1):e4149: An article which assesses the effects of ART on the reproductive intentions and outcomes among women in rural Uganda and the implications of increased access to ART on the reproductive health services which need to be provided to women living with HIV.

Additional information
Year 2009 | Authors Bunnell R, Glidden D, Homsy J, King R, Malamba S, Mermin J, Moore D, Nakityo R, Tappero J
Keywords Antiretroviral therapy (ART), family planning, Reproductive health, Women living with HIV

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Family Planning and HIV

AIDS 23 (suppl 1): The studies published in this supplement highlight how the family planning and HIV fields are related and ways of better integrating them in practice.

Additional information
Year 2009 | Authors Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Keywords family planning, Integration, Linking sexual and reprodutive health and HIV, Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT)

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AIDS and Behaviour: Supplement on HIV, HAART, and Fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Volume 13, Supplement 1. June 2009.

This supplement of AIDS and Behavior brings together current, innovative research from sub-Saharan Africa that explores the influence of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) on reproductive decision-making, reproductive and sexual health, and reproductive outcomes at individual, social, and environmental levels.

Additional information
Year 2009 | Authors Various
Keywords Antiretroviral therapy (ART), People living with HIV, Sexual and reproductive health, Treatment

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Integrating HIV/AIDS treatment and care services into a family planning setting.

A report on integrating HIV treatment and care into reproductive health settings in the Dominican Republic.

Additional information
Year 2006 | Authors IPPF-WHR | Also available in Spanish
Keywords Antiretroviral therapy (ART), family planning, Integration, Treatment

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Integrating family planning services into voluntary counseling and testing centers in Kenya: Operations research results.

A study of the costs and effectiveness of integrating contraceptive services into voluntary HIV counselling and testing services in Kenya.

Additional information
Year 2006 | Authors FHI, USAID
Keywords Behaviour change communication (BCC), family planning, Integration, Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT)

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Integrating counselling and testing into family planning services: What happens to quality?

Integrating counselling and testing into family planning services: What happens to the existing quality of family planning when HIV services are integrated in South Africa? A study comparing the costs of two models for integrating HIV voluntary counselling and testing into family planning clinics in South Africa.

Additional information
Year 2006 | Authors FHI
Keywords family planning, Integration, Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT)

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Steps to Integration 6: Family Planning and HIV

Contraceptive use and fertility intentions among women living with HIV in Kenya and Swaziland is part 6 of the Integra Initiatives Steps to Integration Series. The Steps aim to strengthen the evidence base and good practice for integrating HIV and SRH services.

Additional information
Authors Integra Research team (IPPF; LSHTM; Population Council)
Keywords family planning, Kenya, Swaziland,  HIV.

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Integra Initiative

The Costs of Delivering Integrated HIV & SRH Services in Limited Resource Settings

A retrospective facility based costing study conducted in 40 non-government organization and public health facilities in Kenya and Swaziland. The purpose of this study is to present evidence on the total costs and unit costs of delivering six integrated sexual reproductive health and HIV services in a high and medium HIV prevalence setting, in order to support policy makers and planners scaling up these essential services.

Additional information
Year 2015 | Authors C E Warren, Darsamo V, Guinness L, Integra Initative, mayhew, Michaels-Igbokwe C, Muketo E, Obure CD, Sweeney S, Terris-Prestholt F, Vassall A, Watts C, Z Nhlabatsi
Keywords Integration, Limited resources,  HIV.

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Family planning use and fertility desires among women living with HIV in Kenya

The objective of this study is to examine the use of family planning services by HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Kenya and their ability to achieve their fertility desires. Data are derived from a random sample of women seeking family planning services in public health facilities in Kenya who had declared their HIV status (1887 at baseline and 1224 at endline) and who participated in a longitudinal study (the Integra Initiative) that measured the benefits/costs of integrating HIV and sexual/ reproductive health services in public health facilities.

Additional information
Year 2015 | Authors Charlotte Warren, Ian Askew, Integra Initative, James Kimani, Richard Mute, Susannah Mayhew, Timothy Abuya
Keywords family planning, fertility, Kenya, Women living with HIV

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Exploring risk of experiencing intimate partner violence after HIV infection: a qualitative study among women with HIV attending postnatal services in Swaziland

This is a qualitative semistructured in-depth interview study to explore risks of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) after HIV infection among women with HIV in a postnatal care setting in Swaziland.

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Year 2015 | Authors Colombini M, Howard N., J Kikuvi, Mayhew S, Mulrenan C.
Keywords People living with HIV, risk, Swaziland,  HIV.

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Designing a package of SRH & HIV outreach services to meet the preferences of young people in Malawi

“Designing a package of sexual and reproductive health and HIV outreach services to meet the heterogeneous preferences of young people in Malawi: results from a discrete choice experiment”. This article examines young people’s preferences for integrated family planning and HIV services in rural Malawi.

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Year 2015 | Authors Integra Initiative, John Cairns, Michaels-Igbokwe C, Mylene Lagarde, Terris-Prestholt F
Keywords Malawi, outreach, SRH

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Reliance on condoms for contraceptive protection among HIV care and treatment clients: a mixed methods study on contraceptive choice and motivation within a generalised epidemic

This study describes the contraceptive practices of HIV care and treatment (HCTx) clients in Manzini, Swaziland, including their unmet needs for family planning (FP), and compare these with population-level estimates. It also qualitatively explores the causal factors influencing contraceptive choice and use.

Additional information
Year 2014 | Authors A Wringe, Integra Initative, J Kikuvi, K Church, P Fakudze, R Masuku, S H Mayhew, Z Nhlabatsi
Keywords Contraception, family planning, Swaziland

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Integra Initiative website icon

Integra Initiative website

The Integra Initiative showcases the latest developments in research and best practices and highlights emerging concepts in the integration of HIV and SRH services. Visit www.integrainitiative.org to access the latest findings and resources.

Additional information
Year 2014 | Authors Integra Research team, IPPF, LSHTM, Population Council
Keywords Integrated, Research, SRH & HIV,  HIV.

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How does HIV/SRH service integration impact workload? A descriptive analysis in 2 African settings

This study comprises a descriptive analysis of human resources integration through task shifting/sharing and staff workload in the context of the Integra Initiative – a large-scale five-year evaluation of HIV/SRH integration. It describes the level, characteristics and changes in HR integration in the context of wider efforts to integrate HIV/SRH, and explore the impact of HR integration on staff workload.

Additional information
Year 2014 | Authors Darsamo V, Integra Research team, Michaels-Igbokwe C, Muketo E, Obure CD, Sweeney S, Terris-Prestholt F, Z Nhlabatsi
Keywords Integration, workload,  HIV.

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Exploring experiences in peer mentoring … for capacity building in SRH and HIV service integration in Kenya

“Exploring experiences in peer mentoring as a strategy for capacity building in sexual reproductive health and HIV service integration in Kenya”. The Integra Initiative designed, tested, and adapted protocols for peer mentorship in order to improve service providers’ skills, knowledge, and capacity to provide quality integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. This paper describes providers’ experiences in mentoring as a method of capacity building. Service providers who were skilled in the provision of FP or PNC services were selected to undergo a mentorship training program and to subsequently build the capacity of their peers in SRH-HIV integration.

Additional information
Year 2014 | Authors Abuya T, Baird A, C E Warren, Charity Ndwiga, Colombini M, Integra, Jackline Kivunaga, Kimani J K, Mayhew S, Mutemwa R, Ruth Wayua Muia
Keywords Integration, Kenya, peer mentoring

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Experiences of stigma among women living with HIV…in Kenya

“Experiences of stigma among women living with HIV attending sexual and reproductive health services in Kenya: a qualitative study”. This study explores the experiences of stigma of HIV-positive clients attending family planning and post-natal services and implications for service use and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, in order to to gain a better understanding of the impact of various dimensions of stigma on service use and ART adherence among HIV clients and to inform the response of integrated SRH services.

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Year 2014 | Authors Jackline Kivunaga, Lucy Stackpool Moore, Manuela Colombini, Richard Mutemwa, Susa
Keywords Kenya, qualitative research, stigma, Women living with HIV

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Optimising the cost and delivery of HIV counselling and testing services in Kenya and Swaziland

Approaches to HIV counselling and testing (HCT) within low-resource high HIV prevalence settings have shifted over the years from primarily client-initiated approaches to provider initiated. As part of an ongoing programme science research agenda, we examine the relative costs of provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) services compared with voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services in the same health facilities in two low-resource settings: Kenya and Swaziland.

Additional information
Year 2013 | Authors Abuya T, Askew I, Integra Initiative (inc. Vassall A) (2013), Warren CE
Keywords Integration, SRH,  HIV.

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Need, demand and missed opportunities for integrated RH-HIV care in Kenya & Swaziland

“Need, demand and missed opportunities for integrated RH-HIV care in Kenya & Swaziland: evidence from household surveys.” Through descriptive data analysis of household surveys collected by the Integra Initiative, this paper investigates the need, demand, and missed opportunities for integrated reproductive health and HIV services at the population level in Kenya and Swaziland.

Additional information
Year 2013 | Authors Integra Research team, Isolde Birdthistle, Jackline Kivunaga, Joelle Mak, Joshua Kikuvi, kathyr, Natalie Friend du-Preez, Rachel Masuku, Susannah H Mayhew
Keywords Integration, Kenya, Reproductive health, Research, Swaziland

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Integra Initiative Newsletter: Issue 6

The 6th issue of Integra newsletter highlights the key research findings from the five year pioneering research project, the ‘Integra Initiative’, with a specific focus on cost and efficiency and on clients’ perspectives and preferences for integrated services. This issue also includes some concluding remarks from the main investigators and partners.

Additional information
Year 2013 | Authors IPPF, LSHTM, Population Council

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Integra Initiative Newsletter- Issue 5

The 5th issue of Integra newsletter highlights the main messages from the launch of the Integra Initiative research findings at the Houses of Parliaments on 20 March 2013. It also presents snapshots of opinion from a range of experts and key stakeholders in the field of SRH and HIV integration, and introduces readers to new Integra team members as in previous issues.

Additional information
Year 2013 | Authors IPPF, LSHTM, Population Council
Keywords Integration

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Family planning practices and pregnancy intentions among HIV-positive and HIV-negative postpartum women in Swaziland: a cross sectional survey

In settings where sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevalence is high, the postpartum
period is a time of increased biological susceptibility to pregnancy related sepsis. Enabling women living with
HIV to avoid unintended pregnancies during the postpartum period can reduce vertical transmission and maternal mortality associated with HIV infection. We describe family planning (FP) practices and fertility desires of HIV-positive and HIV-negative postpartum women in Swaziland.

Additional information
Year 2013 | Authors Abuya T, Askew I, Integra Initiative (inc. Vassall A) (2013), Warren CE
Keywords Integration, SRH,  HIV.

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Family planning practices & pregnancy intentions among postpartum women in Swaziland

“Family planning practices and pregnancy intentions among HIV-positive and HIV-negative postpartum women in Swaziland: a cross sectional survey” This paper describes family planning (FP) practices and fertility desires of HIV-positive and HIV-negative postpartum women in Swaziland using data drawn from a baseline survey of a four-year multi country prospective cohort study under the Integra Initiative, which is measuring the benefits and costs of providing integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services in Kenya and Swaziland.

Additional information
Year 2013 | Authors Abuya T, Askew I, C E Warren, Integra Initative
Keywords family planning, Swaziland, Women living with HIV

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Experiences of health care providers with integrated HIV and reproductive health services in Kenya: a qualitative study

There is broad consensus on the value of integration of HIV services and reproductive health services in regions of the world with generalised HIV/AIDS epidemics and high reproductive morbidity. Integration is thought to increase access to and uptake of health services; and improves their efficiency and cost- effectiveness through better use of available resources. However, there is still very limited empirical literature on health service providers and how they experience and operationalize integration. This qualitative study was conducted among frontline health workers to explore provider experiences with integration in order to ascertain their significance to the performance of integrated health facilities.

Additional information
Year 2013 | Authors Busza J, Colombini M, Kivunaga J and Ndwiga C, Mayhew S, Mutemwa R
Keywords Integration, SRH,  HIV.

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Are integrated HIV services less stigmatizing than stand-alone models of care? A comparative case study from Swaziland

Integrating HIV with primary health services has the potential to reduce HIV-related stigma through delivering care in settings disassociated with HIV. This study investigated the relationship between integrated care and felt stigma. The study design was a comparative case study of four models of HIV care in Swaziland, ranging from fully integrated to fully stand-alone HIV care.

Additional information
Year 2013 | Authors Church K, Fakudze P, Integra Initiative, Kikuvi J, Mayhew SH, Simelane D, Wringe A
Keywords health services research, primary care, reproductive health services, stigma, systems integration,  HIV.

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Integra Initiative study protocol: Assessing benefits and costs of integration in Kenya and Swaziland

Study protocol for the Integra Initiative to assess the benefits and costs of integrating sexual and reproductive health and HIV services in Kenya and Swaziland. The need for robust evidence led a consortium of three organizations — International Planned Parenthood Federation, Population Council and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine — to design AND implement the Integra Initiative. The data generated through this study will demonstrate the extent to which reorganizing models of HIV and SRH services can directly influence some of the key MDG indicators, against which countries, development partners and global institutions are measuring their progress towards meeting the MDGs.

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Year 2012 | Authors Anna Vassall, Carol Dayo Obure, Charlotte E Warren, Charlotte Watts, Ian Askew, Isolde Birdthistle, James Kelly Kimani, Kathryn Church, Manuela Colombini, Natalie Friend du-Preez, Richard Mutemwa, Susannah H Mayhew, Timothy Abuya
Keywords HIV services, Integra Initiative, Integration, Sexual and reproductive health

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Costs and efficiency of integrating HIV/AIDS services with other health services: a systematic review of evidence and experience.

In the context of increasing political commitment and previous reviews suggesting a strong public health argument for the integration of HIV services, the authors found the evidence on efficiency broadly supports further efforts to integrate HIV services. 

Additional information
Year 2012 | Authors Dehne K, Greener R, Maier CB, Obure CD, Sweeney S, Vassall A
Keywords Integration, SRH,  HIV.

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Overview of Integra Initiative Research Components in Swaziland

Presentation outlining the Research Components of the Integra Initiative in Swaziland.

Additional information
Year 2011 | Authors Anna Vassall, Charlotte Warren, Integra Initiative, Susannah Mayhew
Keywords Research, SRH & HIV Linkages, Swaziland

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Overview of Integra Initiative Research Components

Presentation outlining the Research Components of the Integra Initiative, including the benefits for clients and services, the impact of integration on behaviour, stigma, and unintended pregnancy, and cost and feasibility of integration.

Additional information
Year 2011 | Authors IPPF, LSHTM, Population Council
Keywords Integra Initiative, Research, SRH HIV Linkages

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Assessing the Benefits of Integrated HIV and SRH Services in Public Health Facilities in Kenya and Swaziland Intervention Report

The impact of integration in public health facilities is influenced by the process of implementation and the context in which this implementation is taking place. This intervention report finds that intervention using the mentoring process was found to be a feasible and effective method in building the capacity of service providers on HIV and FP and PNC integration.

Additional information
Year 2011 | Authors Charity Ndwiga, Charlotte Warren, Integra Initiative, Jacqueline Kivunaga, Joshua Kikuvi, Lawrence Oteba, Timothy Abuya
Keywords Integra Initiative, Intervention, Kenya, Research, SRH & HIV Linkages, Swaziland

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Steps to Integration 7: Human Resources

Part of the Integra Initiatives Steps to Integration Series, Step 7 examines human resource capacity for integrated SRH/HIV care. The Steps aim to strengthen the evidence base and good practice for integrating HIV and SRH services.

Additional information
Authors Integra Research team (IPPF; LSHTM; Population Council)
Keywords human resources, Integration, staff, training

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Steps to Integration 6: Family Planning and HIV

Contraceptive use and fertility intentions among women living with HIV in Kenya and Swaziland is part 6 of the Integra Initiatives Steps to Integration Series. The Steps aim to strengthen the evidence base and good practice for integrating HIV and SRH services.

Additional information
Authors Integra Research team (IPPF; LSHTM; Population Council)
Keywords family planning, Kenya, Swaziland,  HIV.

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Steps to Integration 5: Postnatal Care

Part of the Integra Initiatives Steps to Integration Series, Step 5 examines the effect of integrating HIV services on quality of postnatal care. The series aims to strengthen the evidence base and good practice for integrating HIV and SRH services.

Additional information
Authors Integra Research team (IPPF; LSHTM; Population Council)
Keywords Integration, postnatal, pregnancy

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Steps to Integration 4: Cost and Efficiency

Step 4 in the Integra Initiatives Steps to Integration Series examines the cost and technical efficiency of integrated HIV and SRH services in Kenya and Swaziland. The Steps to Integration series aims to strengthen the evidence base and good practice for integrating HIV and SRH services.

Additional information
Authors Integra Research team (IPPF; LSHTM; Population Council)
Keywords cost effectiveness, Integration, Kenya, Swaziland

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Steps to Integration 3: Stigma

Step 3 in the Steps to Integration Series details Integra Initiative research into stigma, in order to strengthen the evidence base and good practice for integrating HIV and SRH services.

Additional information
Authors Integra Research team (IPPF; LSHTM; Population Council)
Keywords Integra Initiative, stigma,  HIV.

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Steps to Integration 2: Peer Mentoring

Peer Mentoriong: an effective strategy for integrating HIV and SRH services
Step 2 in the Integra Initiatives Steps to Integration Series to strengthen the evidence base and good practice for integrating HIV and SRH services.

Additional information
Authors Integra Research team (IPPF; LSHTM; Population Council)
Keywords Integra Initiative, peer mentoring,  HIV.

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Steps to Integration 1: Introduction

Part of the Integra Initiatives Steps to Integration Series to strengthen the evidence base and good practice for integrating HIV and SRH services. This document provides an introduction to the integration of sexual and reproductive health and HIV services.

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Authors Integra Research team (IPPF; LSHTM; Population Council)
Keywords Integra Initiative, Linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV,  HIV.

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Linking SRH and HIV

The Swaziland Linking HIV and SRH Programme Best Practices Series. A model of integrated services integrating family planning into ART services

A case study of integration at the Siphofaneni Clinic in Swaziland, one of five centres of excellence in the country. This report from the Best Practices Series outlines a model of integrated services integrating family planning into ART services.

Additional information
Year 2013 | Authors EU, Ministry of Health, UNAIDS, UNFPA
Keywords Best practice, SRH & HIV integration, Swaziland

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Exploring experiences in peer mentoring as a strategy for capacity building in sexual reproductive health and HIV service integration in Kenya

Published in BMC Health Services Research. A qualitative assessment was conducted to assess provider experiences and perceptions about peer mentoring. Mentoring was perceived by both mentors and mentees as a sustainable method for capacity building, which increased providers’ ability to offer a wide range of and improved access to integrated SRH and HIV services.

Additional information
Year 2014 | Authors Averie Baird, Charity Ndwiga1, Charlotte E Warren, Integra Initiative, Jackline Kivunaga, James Kelly Kimani, Manuela Colombini, Richard Mutemwa, Ruth Wayua Muia, Susannah Mayhew, Timothy Abuya
Keywords Integra Initiative, Kenya, SRH & HIV Linkages

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Cost-Effectiveness of Integrating PMTCT and MNCH Services: An Application of the LiST Model for Malawi, Mozambique, and Uganda

Using the LiST model for Malawi, Mozambique and Uganda, this paper utilizes empirical evidence on the impact of integration on coverage rates and costs to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for a number of different scenarios. It finds that all of the integration strategies are cost-effective, with all of the scenarios except one being highly cost-effective. Although few empirical results exist regarding the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios associated with integrating HIV and MNCH services, the modeled evidence here confirms that there are significant benefits to integration.

Additional information
Year 2013 | Authors Futures Institute, USAID
Keywords cost effectiveness, Integration, Linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV, mother to child transmission

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The Case for Integrating Family Planning and HIV/AIDS Services: Evidence, Policy Support, and Programmatic Experience

This set of eight briefs summarize the current state of integration of the family planning and HIV fields. The briefs highlight recent developments, including changes in the policy environment, new programmatic examples, and the latest operations research results.

Additional information
Year 2010 | Authors FHI
Keywords Antiretroviral therapy (ART), family planning, Integration, Linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV

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Standards for Sexuality Education in Europe: A framework for policy makers, educational and health authorities and specialists.

This document presents recommended Standards for sexuality education. The Standards indicate what children and young people at different ages should know and understand, what situations or challenges they should be able to handle at those ages, and which values and attitudes they need to develop; all of this so that they can develop in a satisfactory, positive and healthy manner as regards their sexuality.

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Year 2010 | Authors BZgA, WHO Regional Office for Europe | Also available in Finnish, Russian
Keywords framework, Sexuality education, Standards, young people

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Linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV interventions: a systematic review

Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2010. 13(26): An article which systematically reviews the existing evidence for the benefits of linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV programmes at the policy, systems and service delivery levels.

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Year 2010 | Authors Almers L, Brickley DB, Collins L, Kennedy CE, Kennedy GE, Mbizvo M, Mirjahangir J, Osborne K, Packel L, Spaulding AB
Keywords Integration, Linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV, Millennium Development Goals, Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT)

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Increasing Support for Contraception as HIV Prevention: Stakeholder Mapping to Identify Influential Individuals and Their Perceptions.

PLoS ONE 5(5): e10781: An article which identifies how to foster greater support for implementing PMTCT programmes which also include the prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive women.

Additional information
Year 2010 | Authors Harlan SV, Lanham M, Petruney T, Robinson ET
Keywords advocacy, Antiretroviral therapy (ART), family planning, Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT)

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What will it take to achieve virtual elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV? An assessment of current progress and future needs.

Sex Transm Infect 2010;86:ii48-ii55: An article which assesses the potential impact of implementing the new WHO PMTCT guidelines between 2010 and 2015 and consider the efforts required to virtually eliminate mother to child transmission.

Additional information
Year 2010 | Authors Akwara P, Ekpini R, Hayashi C, Kiragu K, Luo C, Mahy M, Shaffer N, Stanecki K, Stover J
Keywords Antiretroviral therapy (ART), family planning, Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT), Unintended pregnancies

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Linking Sexual & Reproductive Health and HIV: Evidence Review and Recommendations

A presentation on the findings of a systematic review of the literature on sexual and reproductive health and HIV linkages.

Additional information
Year 2009 | Authors IPPF, UCSF, UNAIDS, UNFPA, WHO
Keywords Antiretroviral therapy (ART), Integration, Linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV, Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT)

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Linkages: Evidence Review and Recommendations

This document presents the findings of a systematic review of the literature on sexual and reproductive health and HIV linkages and provides recommendations for how to enhance linkages at the research, policy and programme levels.

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Year 2009 | Authors IPPF, UCSF, UNAIDS, UNFPA, WHO | Also available in Arabic, French, Russian, Spanish
Keywords Antiretroviral therapy (ART), Integration, Linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV, Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT)

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Exploring Coping Strategies and Life Choices made by HIV Discordant Couples in Long-Term Relationships: Insights from South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine.

This document reports on the findings of an exploratory study on coping strategies and life choices of couples in South Africa, Tanzania and the Ukraine living in long-term serodiscordant relationships

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Year 2009 | Authors GNP+
Keywords Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV (GIPA), People living with HIV (PLHIV), Positive prevention, Stigma and discrimination

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AIDS and Behaviour: Supplement on HIV, HAART, and Fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Volume 13, Supplement 1. June 2009.

This supplement of AIDS and Behavior brings together current, innovative research from sub-Saharan Africa that explores the influence of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) on reproductive decision-making, reproductive and sexual health, and reproductive outcomes at individual, social, and environmental levels.

Additional information
Year 2009 | Authors Various
Keywords Antiretroviral therapy (ART), People living with HIV, Sexual and reproductive health, Treatment

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Bulletin of the World Health Organisation

Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Volume 87(11), November 2009

This bulletin addresses the special theme of strengthening the linkages between sexual and reproductive health and HIV and why these links are crucial to public health.

Additional information
Year 2009 | Authors WHO
Keywords Integration, key populations, Linking sexual and reproductive health and HIV, Rights

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Voluntary counselling and testing: uptake, impact on sexual behaviour, and HIV incidence in a rural Zambian cohort

AIDS. 21, pp. 851-860: A study which examines the determinants of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) uptake, changes in sexual risk behaviour following VCT, and compares HIV incidence amongst testers and non-testers.

Additional information
Year 2007 | Authors Chawira G, Cremin I, Dube S, Gregson S, Kakowa M, Lopman B, Nyamukapa C, Oberzaucher N, Sherr L
Keywords Behaviour change communication (BCC), Condoms, Information education communication (IEC), Voluntary counselling and testing

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Empowering Communities to Respond to HIV/AIDS: Ndola Demonstration Project on Maternal and Child Health

A pre-post intervention study in Zambia which demonstrated that the provision of HIV voluntary counselling and testing and infant feeding counselling to mothers attending maternal and child health clinics are vital components of any mother to child transmission reduction strategy.

Additional information
Year 2003 | Authors Population Council
Keywords Antiretroviral therapy (ART), Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT), Voluntary counselling and testing, Women and girls

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What Works for Women & Girls: Evidence for HIV/AIDS Interventions

A comprehensive website at www.whatworksforwomen.org. The site documents evidence for effective HIV interventions to guide donors, policymakers, and program managers in planning effective HIV policies and programmes for women and girls.

Additional information
Authors Futures Group, Health Policy Project
Keywords Key Technical Topics, Women and girls

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Best Practices: Advocacy on Integrating SRH HIV

IPPF South Asia Region implemented a program advocating for the integration of SRH and HIV in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka at policy, system and service delivery level through its Member Associations in the respective countries.This document on “Best Practices of SRH HIV Integration captures the process and the achievements of the past four years of the programme which also includes the learning and the way forward. Based on the three pillars of a) Strategic Partnerships, b) Capacity Enhancement and c) Knowledge Products, the document includes several case stories.

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Authors European Union, IPPF SARO
Keywords advocacy, Best practice, south Asia

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